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DeFi 2.0/3.0: Where Are We in the Innovation Cycle?

The world of decentralized finance (DeFi) has experienced tremendous growth and innovation since its inception in 2018. With new protocols, platforms, and applications continuously emerging, it’s essential to understand where we stand in the innovation cycle. This article delves into the progression from DeFi 1.0 to DeFi 2.0, and the ongoing transition to DeFi 3.0. We’ll discuss the key trends and developments shaping this space for experienced users of crypto who seek to keep up with the latest in the DeFi landscape.

Reimagining the Financial System

The world of decentralized finance (DeFi) has embarked on a journey to reinvent the financial system from the ground up. This ambitious endeavor, while promising to democratize finance and promote financial inclusion, is bound to be a long and challenging road, as we learn from past experiences and push the boundaries of innovation.

The Evolution of DeFi

— DeFi 1.0: The Early Days

DeFi 1.0 was the initial stage of the decentralized finance movement, marked by the introduction of basic building blocks for financial services on the blockchain. This phase was characterized by:

  • The rise of stablecoins like Tether (USDT), USD Coin (USDC), and DAI provided a stable store of value and facilitate transactions in the DeFi ecosystem.
  • The creation of decentralized exchanges (DEXs) such as Uniswap and Kyber Network, enabled peer-to-peer trading without the need for centralized intermediaries.
  • The emergence of lending and borrowing platforms like AAVE, Compound, and MakerDAO, allowed users to earn interest on their crypto assets or borrow against them.
  • The introduction of liquidity mining and yield farming, incentivized users to provide liquidity to DeFi platforms by rewarding them with governance tokens. This was a major driver of innovation at the time and drove TVL (Total Value locked) from hundreds of millions to tens of billions.

— DeFi 2.0: Scaling and Interoperability

DeFi 2.0 has been about addressing the limitations of DeFi 1.0 while expanding its capabilities. The importance of each phase is critical. Builders take learnings from the previous and apply them to the next. Without this ongoing innovation, much of the current protocols and infrastructure wouldn’t be possible.

Key features of DeFi 2.0 include:

  • Layer 2 solutions and sidechains (e.g., Optimism, Arbitrum, and Polygon) for improved scalability, lower fees, and faster transaction times.
  • Cross-chain interoperability, enabling seamless interaction between different blockchains, facilitated by projects like Cosmos, Polkadot, and Chainlink.
  • Enhanced yield farming strategies, enabled by platforms such as Yearn Finance and Harvest Finance, optimize yield farming opportunities for users.
  • Decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) gaining prominence, empowering communities to govern DeFi protocols collectively.

DeFi 2.0 brought about significant innovations and improvements, but it was not without its challenges. A notable issue was the rise of Ponzi schemes, such as Luna, which triggered the evaporation of $40bn of value. Another example is Celsius, the now-bankrupt crypto lender ran into serious issues and began using customer assets to fund operational expenses and rewards. The other major issue was the poor levels of risk management that affected this period.

The Emergence of DeFi 3.0

DeFi 3.0 represents the next phase of the decentralized finance ecosystem, driven by a focus on security, privacy, composability, and ease of use. While still in its early stages, DeFi 3.0 aims to make the space more accessible, efficient, and sustainable.

DeFi 3.0: Core Offerings and the Next Frontier

DeFi 3.0 aims to address the shortcomings of previous iterations while introducing groundbreaking innovations that unlock new possibilities. Key offerings in DeFi 3.0 include the following projects:

Swaap and Morpho: 10x Improvement of Existing Primitives

Swaap and Morpho are two projects that focus on significantly enhancing existing DeFi primitives. Morpho aims to revolutionize lending and borrowing by introducing a more efficient and flexible mechanism that reduces inefficiencies and optimizes capital utilization. Swaap, on the other hand, tackles the impermanent loss issue in AMMs by implementing a dynamic and adaptive market-making strategy that dramatically improves performance.

IPOR: Development of New Primitives for Credit Markets

IPOR (Inter-Protocol Overblock Rate) seeks to develop new financial primitives such as a benchmark interest rate for DeFi which can be used to build out a yield curve in credit markets, and interest rate derivatives so market participants can hedge their rate risk. The protocol borrows concepts from TradFi such as a risk-free benchmark rate and interest rate swaps and combines them with the best of DeFi. The index uses transparent smart contract calls to print an on-chain rate to structure deals and derivatives, peer-to-pool market architecture, and a bespoke AMM for trading interest rates. The introduction of such tools could be fundamental to building a mature fixed-income market and extending the durations of instruments making DeFi useful not only for flash loans but someday home loans.

Challenges and the Road Ahead for DeFi

— Composable Finance

Composable finance is another defining characteristic of DeFi 3.0. It refers to the seamless integration and interaction of various DeFi applications and protocols, allowing users to create custom financial products and services. This “money lego” approach enhances innovation by enabling developers to build on existing protocols rather than starting from scratch.

Notable projects that embody composability include Instadapp, a DeFi management platform that allows users to access multiple DeFi protocols through a single interface.

— Institutional Adoption and Regulatory Compliance

The DeFi 3.0 era is expected to see increased institutional adoption as traditional financial institutions recognize the potential of decentralized finance. In response, several DeFi platforms are developing solutions that cater to institutional investors and ensure regulatory compliance.

For instance, projects like Fireblocks, a digital asset custody and transfer platform, and Anchorage, a regulated digital asset platform, are bridging the gap between traditional finance and DeFi. Moreover, some DeFi protocols are working on KYC/AML (Know Your Customer/Anti-Money Laundering) integration to meet regulatory requirements and attract institutional capital.

— Security Concerns

Despite the advancements in DeFi, security remains a significant concern. As the ecosystem grows, it becomes more susceptible to hacks and exploits. DeFi 3.0 aims to address these issues by focusing on improving security through better auditing processes, bug bounties, and insurance products.

Projects like Nexus Mutual and Cover Protocol are developing decentralized insurance solutions to protect users from potential losses resulting from smart contract vulnerabilities.

— User Experience and Education

User experience (UX) and education remain vital factors for the mainstream adoption of DeFi. DeFi 3.0 seeks to simplify complex processes and enhance the overall user experience, making it more accessible to a broader audience.

Efforts to improve UX include integrating user-friendly interfaces, developing comprehensive educational resources, and streamlining the onboarding process for new users. Projects like Zapper and Argent are already working on creating more intuitive DeFi interfaces to cater to non-technical users.

— Governance and Community Involvement

As DeFi continues to evolve, the role of decentralized governance and community involvement becomes increasingly important. DeFi 3.0 is expected to focus on refining governance models and incentivizing active participation from users.

Notable projects that emphasize community governance include:

  • Snapshot: A gasless, off-chain voting platform that allows DeFi projects to efficiently gather community input on proposals and governance decisions.
  • Colony: A platform for creating decentralized organizations with customizable governance structures, enabling projects to tailor governance models to their specific needs.

— Integration of Real-World Assets

DeFi 3.0 aims to bridge the gap between traditional finance and decentralized finance by integrating real-world assets into the ecosystem. Tokenizing physical assets like real estate, commodities, and intellectual property will expand DeFi’s scope and unlock new use cases.

Projects at the forefront of this trend include:

  • Centrifuge: A protocol that enables users to tokenize real-world assets, such as invoices or real estate, and access DeFi liquidity by using these tokens as collateral for borrowing.
  • Tinlake: A platform built on top of Centrifuge that allows users to pool their tokenized assets and create collateralized debt positions (CDPs).

— Enhanced Risk Management

DeFi 3.0 is poised to introduce more sophisticated risk management tools to protect users from potential market downturns and losses. These tools will help users assess and manage risks associated with various DeFi platforms and strategies.

Some projects focusing on risk management in DeFi include:

  • Gauntlet: A simulation platform that uses on-chain data and economic modeling to stress test DeFi protocols and assess their vulnerability to various risks.
  • Risk Harbor: A decentralized risk management platform that enables users to create and trade customized insurance products to hedge against potential losses in DeFi investments.

— Infrastructure scalability

The DeFi 3.0 era is poised to address the critical issue of infrastructure scalability, leveraging technologies like zk-rollups, which enable offloading computation and storage from the main blockchain to a separate layer while maintaining privacy and security. Additionally, oracles play a vital role in the expansion of DeFi by providing accurate and reliable on-chain data feeds for various applications.

The emergence of advanced oracle solutions such as Chainlink, API3, DIA, Redstone, and Pragma ensures a more robust and decentralized data infrastructure, allowing DeFi platforms to build innovative products and services. Furthermore, hybrid models combining on-chain and off-chain solutions are gaining traction, as they offer improved performance without compromising security. This approach allows DeFi platforms to harness the benefits of both centralized and decentralized systems, striking a balance between efficiency, transparency, and security.


The ongoing transition from DeFi 2.0 to DeFi 3.0 is marked by a focus on security, privacy, composability, and ease of use. By addressing challenges such as security concerns, environmental sustainability, and user experience, DeFi 3.0 aims to create a more accessible, efficient, and sustainable financial ecosystem.

The integration of real-world assets, enhanced risk management, and decentralized storage solutions will further expand the scope and utility of DeFi. As the innovation cycle continues to unfold, the DeFi ecosystem is set to unlock new possibilities and redefine the future of finance.

How to Stay on Top of Your Commercial Building Maintenance

Commercial buildings provide a functional space for businesses to operate, and it is the responsibility of owners and facility managers to ensure that the building remains in top condition. Neglecting maintenance activities can lead to safety hazards, decreased functionality, and costly repairs or replacements. Therefore, owners and managers of commercial buildings must prioritize maintenance to keep their buildings safe and comfortable. Here are some tips on how to maintain commercial buildings effectively.

Conduct regular inspections

Conducting regular inspections is crucial for the maintenance of commercial buildings. These inspections should be carried out by professional contractors who are experienced and skilled in identifying and fixing issues in commercial buildings. Inspections should cover all areas of the building, including the roof, plumbing, electrical systems, and HVAC systems. This helps to identify issues early before they turn into major problems that may require costly repairs or replacements.

During inspections, contractors should take note of any signs of wear and tear, corrosion, leaks, or damage to equipment and systems. They should also test the functionality of safety systems such as fire alarms, smoke detectors, and sprinkler systems. The frequency of inspections may depend on the age of the building, its location, and the type of business conducted in the building. In some cases, it may be necessary to carry out inspections quarterly or even monthly, especially in buildings with high traffic.

Hire professional contractors

Hiring professional contractors is crucial for the proper maintenance of commercial buildings. Professional contractors have the necessary skills, experience, and equipment to identify and fix issues quickly and efficiently. They can also provide expert advice on how to maintain the building and avoid potential issues. Always hire contractors who have the specific expertise required for your building’s maintenance needs. For instance, if you need roofing repairs, get a contractor who is experienced in commercial roofing Atlanta.

When hiring professional contractors, it is essential to conduct thorough research to ensure that they are reputable, licensed, and insured. These credentials ensure that the contractors are qualified to carry out maintenance and repairs in commercial buildings and that you will not be liable for any damages or injuries that may occur during and after the maintenance process. Additionally, it is important to establish a good working relationship with the contractors to ensure that any issues are dealt with efficiently.

Address issues promptly

Addressing repairs and maintenance issues promptly is crucial for the proper maintenance of commercial buildings. Failure to address issues promptly may result in further damage and more costly repairs. Therefore, it is a good idea to have a system in place for reporting and addressing repairs and maintenance issues. This could involve setting up a maintenance hotline or an online chat channel for employees to report issues as they occur. When Once an issue is reported, you should prioritize it based on its importance and submit a maintenance work order.

Promptly addressing repairs and maintenance issues not only ensures that the building remains functional and safe but also improves the morale and productivity of the people who work in the building. Employees are more likely to feel valued and appreciated when their work environment is well-maintained and safe.

Ensure proper cleaning and sanitation

Proper cleaning and sanitation may seem like common sense, but they can have a huge impact on the wear and tear of your commercial building. All areas of the building including bathrooms, floors, windows, and walls, should be cleaned regularly. Regular cleaning helps to prevent the buildup of harmful bacteria, mold, and other contaminants. If your building is a restaurant or a medical facility, you should ensure that the cleaning and sanitation are in line with relevant health codes and guidelines.

In addition to regular cleaning, it is also essential to implement a sanitation program that includes disinfection of high-touch surfaces such as doorknobs, elevator buttons, and handrails. This helps to prevent the spread of germs and ensures that the building remains a safe environment for all its users.

Develop a maintenance plan

A maintenance plan outlines the maintenance tasks that need to be carried out to keep the building in top shape, as such routine cleaning, preventative maintenance, and the repair or replacement of worn-out equipment and systems. When developing the plan, the specific needs of the building such as age, location, and type of business conducted must be considered. A maintenance schedule should also be established to ensure that tasks are carried out at the appropriate times and a budget should be set aside for these tasks.

In addition to regular maintenance tasks, the maintenance plan should also include provisions for addressing unexpected repairs and emergencies. For example, a protocol should be established for dealing with power outages or floods, as these incidents can cause significant damage and lead to safety hazards. Once the maintenance plan is created, it should be communicated to all relevant parties. The plan should also be reviewed and updated regularly to ensure that it remains relevant and effective.

The maintenance of commercial buildings is crucial for the safety, functionality, and longevity of the property. Proper maintenance activities can prevent accidents, minimize the risk of costly repairs, and improve the aesthetic appeal of the building. By prioritizing the proper cleaning and maintenance of your commercial building, you can keep your tenants safe and satisfied, and ultimately protect your investment.

Easiest Bachelor’s Degrees

Many students are unsure of what career they would like to follow and are interested in knowing which bachelor’s degrees are the easiest to get. Whether they are simply curious, are trying to choose between two similar majors, or simply want a college degree and don’t care about their major, there are many reasons to wonder what degrees require less hard work. 

In some cases, students are struggling with highschool and aren’t certain they will be able to earn a difficult degree. For students that are unsure about their ability to earn a difficult degree or finish college, there are plenty of resources out there that can provide them with the support they need. With extra support and an easier degree, any student can succeed in college.


Psychology is rated as one of the easiest degrees to earn at the bachelor’s level. Psychology is the study and treatment of the human mind. It covers things such as behavior, development, and mental health. If you want a career as a psychologist, you may end up needing a Master’s degree. Psychologists are likely to find work in medical settings, correctional institutions, schools, and for government agencies. If a career as a psychologist does not appeal, this degree offers a uniquely large variety of career paths.

Criminal Justice

A bachelor’s degree in criminal justice usually has less reading and writing than other degrees, making this a good choice if you don’t excel in those skills. Getting a degree in criminal justice can be a low-stress educational choice, but as a career, that doesn’t mean the career is boring. With a criminal justice degree, you can become a police officer, a detective, or a probation officer, among other positions.


Sociology majors learn about human behavior and how to preform and apply research. In this major, you won’t have a lot of long writing assignments or long papers to read. Careers vary but often involve user experience positions, such as researching for advertising firms and research companies. In a big picture, you could be using data gathered from human behavior and applying it in ways that increase business performance! A good example is marketing teams using TikTok analytics to deduce what demographics of people are interested in the content their company is producing. Knowing your target audience and their behavior is essential to a businesses future success.


English majors spend a lot of time reading and dissecting literature. If you love reading and want to avoid math or science classes, this may be a great choice for you. Besides avoiding math and science classes, you will also avoid needing to write research papers. English majors can get jobs in a huge range of fields, which can be an advantage or a disadvantage depending on your circumstances.


Education can be an easy degree to get and doesn’t require as high of SAT scores as some. An education major will spend most of their time learning educational theory, practical classroom techniques, and student teaching with other teachers. Education isn’t one of the highest paying jobs, but teachers are in high demand and you will never lack work opportunities. A person with an education degree is most likely to be a teacher, but could also find career opportunities working for curriculum developers, research institutes, and universities.

Social Work

Social work degrees can be easy to get as they don’t require advanced math and science classes. Just like with a criminal justice degree, graduates with degrees in social work will be able to help children, the elderly, and disadvantaged people acquire better lives. While social work is valuable and much-needed, it can be stressful and sad, and as public workers, it doesn’t always pay well. 

Religious Studies

A major in religious studies will have you researching various religions around the world, and learning a lot about philosophy, as well. A religious studies student will spend a lot of time reading, writing, and discussing, but not much time on science and math topics. Because religious studies are philosophy-based rather than fact-based, your skill in debate may be more important than your understanding of specific black-and-white ideas.


With a degree in history, you will have a variety of career opportunities in front of you, from museum work to teaching, to research in universities. This degree can be easier than others because it requires little technical writing, science, or math. Most of the work involves learning about the past and reading old documents. 


Health degrees, such as health administration or health science, are among the easiest science majors to receive. A health degree is more theoretical than many science degrees, and as a result, it often has less research and lab work. With a health degree, many career options are available, including those requiring a higher degree in a specialty such as physical therapy. 


Anthropology is the study of ancient humans and how they lived. This degree will combine science and history work, and while it may involve research and long papers, it will not involve advanced math. Anthropology majors may spend time doing fieldwork at archeology sites. Anthropologists will likely find careers in university research, archeology, and museum curation.


A music degree can be easier to get than many others, as long as you enjoy music a lot. Students working towards a music degree will not have to do a lot of math, science, writing, or reading, making it easier for students who struggle in these areas. They will, however, have to do a lot of instrument practice and playing. A graduate with a music degree is likely to have a career in music instruction or as a musician. 

Why Findability Is the Priority in Content Creation

If you work in a communications or marketing team – or if you’re a journalist or blogger – your first thought is often a great content idea. How that content is going to be found tends to come further down the list in terms of priorities. Here’s why content creators need to move away from this engrained mindset.

Of course, good content ideas are the building blocks of a digital marketing, communications or content strategy. But good – even brilliant – content itself is no longer enough to get your messages out there.

There are various estimates about how many new web pages are published across the whole of the internet every single day. To give a rough idea, figures show that the number of new websites published each day ranges between 250,000 and 550,000. And those figures don’t even consider new pages published on already established websites every day. On top of this is social media, with literally millions of social media posts published every day as well. We live in an age where anyone can publish content. So how do you go about ensuring the content you produce doesn’t get lost amid all the other content out there?

This is why findability is absolutely everything when it comes to content creation. So how do you make your content findable?

Take Advantage of Social Media

One way to ensure that your content is being seen is to create something that viewers want to click on, watch and, most importantly, share. This means creating original content that instantly stops a viewer mid-scroll, and promotes engagement. Try to think of new and innovative ideas to share, or hire an agency to help you with these goals.

The best ways to come up with unique ideas is to think outside of the box to grab a viewer’s attention. For example, if you’re an event coordinator marketing your latest event, try getting a 360 photo booth to add some visual interest to your next social media campaign. Be sure to add a call to action in your post, like a question posed to the viewer specifically This gives them more reason to comment and share, which will in turn make your content easier to find. This strategy relies on natural social media engagement, and will manipulate the backend formulas of these platforms to push your content higher — similar to how SEO works, which we’ll cover later in the article.

Use Natural Language Processing

One of the best ways to keep on top of findability in content creation is to use technology specifically designed with findability in mind. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is fast becoming a leading way to do this. NLP uses artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to crawl content and understand it like a human might. So when you do a content audit, you can use NLP technology to go through your content and fix issues that are currently preventing it from being findable. This includes titles, metadata and the kind of language you use. 

Using NLP is a great way to keep the creative spirit of coming up with excellent content ideas, then bring it back to something that works in terms of findability too. Not only can this technology save you time and help your content travel further, it can also help companies organize their content as a whole. Businesses are starting to use NLP content to crawl the variety of documents and internal resources saved on shared systems, in order to categorize and identify what content assets are available in an organization.

Search Engine Optimization

While tools such as NLP software help with search engine optimization (SEO), it is important for content creators to understand the basics of SEO in its own right. Unless you have very powerful direct marketing channels in place, or a huge and engaged social media following, you need to rank well on search engines if you want your content to achieve a decent reach.

There is a huge amount of advice out there on how to optimize content for search engines. However, good performance on search engines typically comes down to three things.

Firstly, as a content creator, you must ensure that each page of content you produce has a clear and original keyword or key phrase associated with it. Each page of your website should have a different keyword or key phrase, which should be used in the title and naturally within the content.

Secondly, credibility is very important for search engine optimization. Content that is written or endorsed by experts will always do a lot better than content that doesn’t have something or someone credible behind it.

Lastly, ensure your website is working well from a technical perspective. Aspects such as long page loading times can lower the ranking of your content, even though this has nothing to do with the content itself.

Readability and Links

Pages of content that website users arrive on and engage with will create a positive cycle of findability. Search engines take this as a sign that the website content is of a high quality and relevant to the keyword or key phrase, so it will become more findable on search engines and social media as a result. Content that engages users tends to be easily scannable, so using sub headings, bullet points, pull out text boxes and images all help with this. Good quality design, clever formatting and visuals are great for keeping users engaged too.

Including related links is also incredibly important to improving content findability. This can be achieved by linking to relevant pages elsewhere on your website. Alternatively, include a section such as ‘customers also liked…’ with a list of the top website pages other website visitors went to next. If a website user continues browsing your website after reading the initial piece of content, it will bring the website credibility as a whole. This will improve search engine rankings and the general findability of your individual pieces of content.