Since its introduction in 1961 under the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act, the J-1 Visa Program has been the visa USA for foreign students and scholars. The visa, which allows students to train and/or work in the United States, has seen countless students – particularly students from Europe – cross the Atlantic for a few months of cultural exchange and valuable life experience.
However, in recent years the visa has come under scrutiny, and mounting restrictions are changing the shape of the program which has served so many students for over 50 years. There are a number of factors at play, and it remains uncertain as to whether or not the visa program will survive.
For decades, the process of obtaining a J-1 visa was relatively simple. Sponsorship bodies are available all over Europe which, for a nominal fee, will provide the necessary sponsorship for students looking to travel to the United States, as well as helping them with all the necessary paperwork. Typically, the process is as straightforward as paying the fee and presenting the necessary paperwork at the American embassy.
Throughout their stay in the United States, visa holders are required to communicate with their visa sponsors regarding any changes of address and/or employment. Visas are issued on the proviso that the students obtain some form of employment, internship, or traineeship. Failure to obtain employment can result in the cancellation of the visa, which is why it’s so important for students to keep their sponsor well-informed about their employment status during the duration of their stay. Beyond the necessary communication with the sponsor, historically the visa has been incredibly flexible. Students were free to choose where in the United States they wished to stay, and had a great deal of freedom when choosing a job.
That was, until, fairly recently. US President Donald Trump has announced plans to drastically reduce the program, as part of his “Buy American, Hire American” executive order. The order has caused no small amount of panic throughout the nation, as resorts and businesses who usually rely on seasonal, European student workers have voiced their concern over remaining operational without J-1 workers.
But Trump’s policies haven’t been the only blow to the program. In 2015, six Irish J-1 students from Ireland tragically died in Berkeley, California when a balcony collapsed at a party. Despite the unforeseeable and devastating nature of the event, many took the deaths as a cue to criticize the visa program. According to some, the program encouraged foreign students to travel to the United States for months of reckless partying, and the benefits of the program were harshly questioned.
Though the US government insists that the J-1 visa program will remain, both businesses and foreign students alike are worried about the future of the program, especially in the wake of Trump’s actions on H-1B visas. For now, those depending on the labor of overseas visiting students are trapped in a kind of limbo, uncertain as to whether or not they can survive the coming years if the program is to be axed.
The industries that would be affected by a cut to the program are vast and varied. Everything from hospitality to au pairs would bear the brunt of a cut to the J-1 visa program, so it’s no wonder that the uncertainty has many feeling concerned. In the interim, the eligibility factors and regulations of the visa have changed somewhat in the past two years.
For starters, students are now required to have secured employment prior to traveling to the United States. While in the past it was not uncommon for students to arrive in the country and then begin their search for work and accomodation, the new regulations are far more strict. The idea is that students begin working from the moment they arrive, removing any risk of lapsed communication with their sponsors or deliberate misrepresentation of their intentions while in the United States. Some critics have argued that this places an extra strain on students, as many employers are wary about hiring potential candidates who do not have an American address or who cannot attend a job interview in person.
For now, students wishing to study or work in the United States are free to do so, albeit under significantly stricter regulations that those who came before them. It’s clear that temporary migrant workers, many of whom who arrive in the country on J-1 visas, are crucial to the American economy. If the J-1 visa goes, it could mean chaos for untold numbers of American businesses. Unless the government can propose a better alternative to the visa, the axing thereof can only end in disaster. Whether or not the visa program will survive remains unseen, but if it does go down, it won’t be without a fight.