Articles & Chapters


Patriotism as Loyalty,” Social Research 86, no. 3 (Fall 2019): 583-605.

Lincoln and the Politics of the ‘Towering Genius’,” American Political Thought 7, no. 3 (Summer 2018): 375-399.

The Iliad: An Affair of Honor,” The Yale Review 104, no. 4 (October 2016): 10-31.

Leo Strauss’s Discovery of the Theologico-Political Problem,” European Journal of Political Theory 12, no. 4 (2013): 388-408.

Philosophy as a Way of Life: The Case of Leo Strauss,” Review of Politics 71, no. 1 (Winter 2009): 37-53.

How to Commemorate the 350th Anniversary of Spinoza’s Expulsion, or Leo Strauss’s Critique of Hermann Cohen,” Hebraic Political Studies 3, no. 2 (Spring 2008): 155-176.

What Kind of Democrat Was Spinoza?” Political Theory 33, no. 1 (February 2005): 6-27.

An Exemplary Life: The Case of René Descartes,” Review of Metaphysics 57, no. 3 (March 2004): 571-597.

On Leo Strauss’s Critique of Spinoza,” Cardozo Law Review 25, no. 2 (December 2003): 741-758.

A Fool for Love: Thoughts on I. B. Singer’s Spinoza,” Iyyun: The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 51 (January 2002): 41-50.

Leo Strauss’s Platonic Liberalism,” Political Theory 28, no. 6 (December 2000): 787-809.

Political Science and Political Philosophy: An Uneasy Relation,” PS: Political Science & Politics 33, no. 2 (June 2000): 189-191.

Destruktion or Recovery? Leo Strauss’s Critique of Heidegger,” Review of Metaphysics 51, no. 2 (December 1997): 345-377.

At the Crossroads: Hegel and the Ethics of bürgerliche Gesellschaft,” Laval Théologique et Philosophique 51, no. 2 (June 1995): 345-362.

Spinoza’s Democratic Turn: Chapter 16 of the Theologico-Political Treatise,” Review of Metaphysics 48, no. 2 (December 1994): 359-388.

Gershom Scholem and Leo Strauss: Notes Toward a German-Jewish Dialogue,” Modern Judaism 13, no. 3 (October 1993): 209-229.

Hegel on Slavery and Domination,” Review of Metaphysics 46, no. 1 (September 1992): 97-124.

Hegel and the Problem of Slavery,” Cardozo Law Review 13, no. 5 (March 1992): 1771-1815.

Hegel and the Jewish Question: In Between Tradition and Modernity,” History of Political Thought 12, no. 1 (Spring 1991): 87-106.

Leo Strauss: Between Athens and Jerusalem,” Review of Politics 53, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 75-99.

Ideology and Interpretation: The Case of Althusser,” Poetics Today 10, no. 3 (Autumn 1989): 493-510.

Hegel and the French Revolution: An Epitaph for Republicanism,” Social Research 51, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 233-261.

What is ‘Right’ in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right?” American Political Science Review 83, no. 1 (March 1989): 3-18.

Hegelianism and the Three Crises of Rationality,” Social Research 56, no. 4 (Winter 1989): 943-973.

Hegel’s Idea of a Critical Theory,” Political Theory 15, no. 1 (February 1987): 99-126.

Steven B. Smith, “Goodness, Nobility & Virtue in Aristotle’s Political Science,” Polity 19, no. 1 (Autumn 1986): 5-26.

Hegel’s Critique of Liberalism,” American Political Science Review 80, no. 1 (March 1986): 121-139.

Althusser’s Marxism without a Knowing Subject,” American Political Science Review 79, no. 3 (September 1985): 641-655.

Considerations on Marx’s Base and Superstructure,” Social Science Quarterly 65, no. 4 (December 1984): 940-954.

Althusser and the Overdetermined Self,” Review of Politics 46, no. 4 (October 1984): 516-538.

Hegel’s Views on War, the State, and International Relations,” American Political Science Review 77, no. 3 (September 1983): 624-632.

Hegel’s Discovery of History,” Review of Politics 45, no. 2 (April 1983): 163-187.



Conservatism and Its Discontents,” in The Cambridge History of Modern European Thought, Volume II: The Twentieth Century, eds. Peter Gordon and Warren Breckman (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2019), 391-416. Amazon.

Isaiah Berlin on the Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment” in The Cambridge Companion to Isaiah Berlin, eds. Joshua L. Cherniss and Steven B. Smith (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2018), 132-148. Amazon.

“Why Did Lincoln Go to War?” in The Political Thought of the Civil War, eds. Alan Levine, Thomas W. Merrill, and James R. Stoner, Jr. (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2018), 203-225. Amazon.

“Lincoln’s Enlightenment,” in Principles and Prudence in Western Political Thought, eds. Christopher Lynch and Jonathan Marks (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2016), 275-295. Amazon.

“Lincoln’s Kantian Republic,” in Abraham Lincoln and Liberal Democracy, ed. Nicholas Buccola (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2016), 216-237. Amazon.

Practical Life and the Critique of Rationalism,” in The Cambridge Companion to Oakeshott, ed. Efraim Podoksik (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 131-152. Amazon.

“Philosophy as a Way of Life: The Case of Leo Strauss,” in Political Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Authors and Arguments, ed. Catherine H. Zuckert (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 61-79. Amazon.

Leo Strauss: The Outlines of a Life,” in The Cambridge Companion to Leo Strauss, ed. Steven B. Smith (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 13-40. Amazon.

Leo Strauss and Modern Jewish Thought,” in The Cambridge Companion to Modern Jewish Thought, eds. Michael L. Morgan and Peter Eli Gordon (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 147-169. Amazon.

“Spinoza’s Critique of Election,” in The Jewish Political Tradition, Volume II: Membership, eds. Michael Walzer, Menachem Lorberbaum, and Noam J. Zohar (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003), 39-44. Amazon.

“Toleration and the Skepticism of Religion in Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus,” in Early Modern Skepticism and the Origins of Toleration, ed. Alan Levine (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 1999), 127-145. Amazon.

Heidegger and Political Philosophy: The Theory of His Practice,” Theory and Practice: Nomos XXXVII, eds. Ian Shapiro and Judith Wagner DeCew (New York: New York University Press, 1995): 440-463. Amazon.

“The Origins of the Dialectic: Hegel’s Appropriation of the Ancient Skeptics,” Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity, ed. George E. McCarthy (Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992), 75-103. Amazon.