Urban sprawl is a form of unplanned urban and suburban development that takes place over a large area and creates a low-density environment with a high segregation between residential and commercial areas with harmful impacts on the people living in these areas. It is becoming a major issue in many cities around the United States. Problems include increased strain on transport infrastructure, social segregation leading to increased crime, and decreased political participation. In this article, we dig into the causes of urban sprawl, explain some of its problems, and look at possible solutions.
What is Urban Sprawl?
Urban sprawl is a form of urban growth in which low-density development (such as single-family homes) of large plots of land takes place over a large area, sometimes extending for miles outside of the urban limits. It is also called suburban sprawl, metropolitan sprawl, and suburbanization.
Urban sprawl is a very common type of development in the United States and many other countries around the world. It is a product of the policy of physical planning for the past 200 years that promoted the development of urban areas along public transportation routes. These areas were designed to be self-sufficient, with access to necessary services such as schools and hospitals.
Urban sprawl is often seen as a problem in many parts of the world. It has been criticized for its numerous negative effects on the environment, social life, and economy of cities and the countries they reside in.
The Emergence of Urban Sprawl
Urban sprawl started with the industrial revolution in the 19th century, when the economic and population growth facilitated the migration of people from rural to urban areas. The newly arrived people moved into the city centers, and the areas surrounding the cities were used for agriculture and other industrial activities.
The private car became popular in the early 1900s and contributed to the growing popularity of suburban development. At the same time, the United States and the United Kingdom expanded their road networks. This helped the development of suburbs.
In the post-war era, the expansion of transport systems continued, but this time the suburbs were more accessible to the people who wanted to live there. The automobile industry also developed rapidly, which allowed the construction of larger homes and the accessibility of goods and services.
Since the 1970s, the number of people living in the suburbs has increased dramatically, and urban sprawl has become a major issue in many countries around the world.
The Effects of Urban Sprawl
Urban sprawl is a common type of development that has many negative effects on the environment, social life, and economy of cities. Let’s take a closer look at these three effects.
The development of urban sprawl increases the need for transport and reduces the land available for agriculture. This leads to more pollution from transport and, according to the data, more food being imported from other countries. This increases the risk of transporting dangerous substances and the risk of importing food that is not produced to the high standards required in the United States and other developed countries.
Social Life and Economy
Urban sprawl has a negative impact on the social life of residents. A lack of public places such as parks and playgrounds limits the opportunities for residents to meet each other and interact. This can lead to social segregation, and the people living in these areas can become disengage from the rest of the community.
Urban sprawl also has a negative effect on the economy of cities. Many people prefer to live in suburbs, but they have to travel to the city center for work. This leads to increased traffic congestion and higher levels of pollution. There is also a high demand for parking spaces in the city centers, which places a strain on the land available for other uses.
Urban sprawl makes it difficult for people from different areas to participate in the democracy of our country. Communities becomes segregated, and develop local norms and beliefs that fail to be properly integrated into broader society, and fail to be properly recognized by our elected officials.
The Way Forward
Urban sprawl is a common type of development, and we don’t necessarily need to discount it completely. There are many solutions to help reduce its negative effects on our society. Let’s take a look at a few of the most effective solutions:
1. Improve and Reduce the Need for Transport
Reducing the need for transport is one of the most effective solutions to reduce the negative effects of urban sprawl. Cities should build public transportation systems that help people get to the city center efficiently. They should also build communities that are close to the employment centers. There are many ways to reduce the need for transport, such as making cities more walkable, building more cycle tracks, and improving public transportation.
2. Limit the Use of Private Cars
Limiting the use of private cars and expanding public transportation systems is another way to reduce urban sprawl. This will help reduce the strain on transport infrastructure and reduce the amount of pollution. When combined with effective transportation networks, it promotes social integration and reduces pollution.
3. Provide More Public Spaces
Providing more public spaces will help to create a sense of community and reduce instances of social segregation. These types of public spaces include parks, playgrounds, and community centers. They also allow residents to get to know each other and form stronger social networks.
4. Build Communities, Not Houses
Building communities involves more than just building new houses. It involves building places where residents can meet each other and interact. This starts from the developments themselves. When I lived in North Carolina, I noticed a lot of Charlotte condos successfully fostering this sense of community, but I haven’t seen it much in bigger US cities. Developers should be aware of their social responsibilities prior to starting any housing projects.
5. Build Affordable Housing
Cities should provide affordable housing options that are close to the city center. This will reduce the amount of time that people spend traveling to and from work, and it will reduce the amount of traffic congestion in the city center. One of the biggest drivers of urban sprawl is the demand for low-cost housing, and the planning of these developments often neglects long-term social externalities.
Urban sprawl has become a major issue in many countries around the world. It has many negative effects on the environment, social life, and economy of cities. It is also a major problem when it comes to political participation in the community.
There are many solutions that can help to reduce the negative effects of urban sprawl. Some of these solutions include improving and reducing the need for transport, limiting the use of private cars, providing more public spaces, building communities rather than houses, and providing affordable housing in the city center. These ideas should be enacted in the planning process for future developments to ensure social harmony and security in the long-term.