Articles, Monographs

(not including brief reviews, “popular” articles, and articles reprinted in English):

  1. “Demography, Salience, and Isolationist Behavior,” Public Opinion Quarterly 24:4 (Winter 1960), 657-64.
  2. “Cause, Surprise, and No Escape,” Journal of Politics 24:1 (February 1962), 3-22. Reprinted in German.
  3. “International Communication and Legislative Behavior,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 6:4 (December 1962), 291-307.
  4. “International Trade and Political Independence” (with K. W. Deutsch), American Behavioral Scientist 6:7 (March 1963), 18-20.
  5. “Toward a Model of Competitive International Politics,” Journal of Politics 30:2 (May 1963), 226-47.
  6. “The Calculus of Deterrence,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 7:3 June 1963), 97-109.
  7. “Measures of Military Effort,” American Behavioral Scientist 7:6 (February 1964), 26-29.
  8. “Inequality and Instability: The Relation of Land Tenure to Politics,” World Politics 16:3 (April 1964), 442-54.
  9. “Strategies for Comparing Nations,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 8:3 (June 1964), 166-70.
  10. “The Citizen and His Society: Attitudes of the Indian People toward Government, Modernization and Each Other” (with Coralie Bryant), Monthly Public Opinion Surveys, India 10: 4-5 (February-March 1965), 58 pp.
  11. “The Cold War Politics of Arms Control” (with Carolyn Cooper), Transaction 11:5 (July-August 1965), 3-6, 40-45.
  12. “A Note on the Evaluation of Error and Transformation in Data Analysis,” American Political Science Review 59:2 (June 1965), 444-46.
  13. “Indices for Comparing Inequality” (with Hayward Alker), in R. Merritt and S. Rokkan, eds., Comparing Nations: The Use of Quantitative Data in Cross-National Research (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966). Revised version of “On Measuring Inequality,” Behavioral Science 9:3 (July 1964), 207-18.
  14. The Yale Political Data Program,” (with Karl Deutsch, Harold Lasswell, and Richard Merritt), in Merritt and Rokkan, eds. (above), 81-94.
  15. The Yale Political Data Program: Experience and Prospects,” in Merritt and Rokkan, eds. (above), 95-107.
  16. “The Apolitics of Strategy,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 10:1 (March 1966), 122-27.
  17. “Discovering Voting Groups in the General Assembly,” American Political Science Review 60:2 (June 1966), 327-39.
  18. Arms Control in Europe: Proposals and Political Constraints (with Carolyn Cooper), Denver, CO: University of Denver Monograph Series in World Affairs 4:2 (1967).
  19. The Asia Rimland as a ‘Region’ for Containing China,” in John Montgomery and Albert Hirschman, eds., Public Policy: Yearbook of the Graduate School of Public Administration (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967), 226-49.
  20. “The Ecology of Future International Politics,” International Studies Quarterly 9:1 (Spring 1967), 12-31.
  21. “The Complexities of Ballistic Missile Defense,” Yale Review (Spring 1967), 354-67.
  22. “Pearl Harbor: Deterrence Theory and Decision Theory,” Journal of Peace Research (1967:2), 89-105.
  23. “Social Change and Attitudes on Development and the Political System in India,” Journal of Politics 39:3 (August 1967), 483-504. Reprinted in Spanish.
  24. “The World Handbook as a Tool in Current Research,” Social Science Information 6:6 (December 1967), 17-33.
  25. Delineating International Regions,” in J. David Singer, ed., Quantitative International Politics: Insights and Evidence International Yearbook of Political Behavior Research 6 (New York: Free Press, 1968).
  26. “Rich and Poor in 2000 A.D.: The Great Gulf,” Virginia Quarterly Review, 44:2 (Spring 1968), 182-98. Reprinted in Japanese and German.
  27. “Probabilism and the Number of Units Influenced: Refinements in Measuring Influence Concentration,” American Political Science Review 62:2 (June 1968), 476-80.
  28. “Is There a Long-Run Trend Toward Concentration in the International System?” Comparative Political Studies l:l (April 1968), l03-22.
  29. “A Standardized List of National Political Entities in the Twentieth Century” (with J. David Singer and Melvin Small), American Political Science Review 62:2 (September 1968), 932-51.
  30. “Democracy in One Country?” Journal of International Affairs 22 (June 1968), 261-65.
  31. “Components of an Operational Theory of International Alliance Formation,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 12:3 (September 1968), 285-301.
  32. “Regional Trading Patterns, 1938-63,” International Studies Quarterly 12:4 (December 1968), 360-79.
  33. “Global Patterns of Diplomatic Exchange, 1963-64″ (with W. Curtis Lamb), Journal of Peace Research 1969:l, 37-55.
  34. “Who Pays for Defense?” American Political Science Review 63:2 (June 1969), 412-27.
  35. “Politics in the Emerging Regions” (with W. Curtis Lamb), Peace Research Society (International) Papers 12 (1970), 1-31.
  36. International Behavior Research: Case Studies and Cumulation,” in M. Haas and H. Kariel, eds., Approaches to the Study of Political Science (San Francisco, CA: Chandler, 1970).
  37. Methodological and Theoretical Schools in International Relations,” in Norman Palmer, ed., A Design for International Relations Research (Philadelphia, PA: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1970).
  38. “Vietnam and Restraints on Aerial Welfare,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 26:1 (January 1970), 9-12.
  39. “The Young Science of International Politics,” World Politics 22:1 (October 1969), 87-94.
  40. Feedbacks and Disaggregation in the Development Model,” in Ernest Attinger, ed., Global Systems Dynamics (Basle: S. Karger, 1970).
  41. Some Decisions in the Regression Analysis of Time-Series Data,” in Joseph L. Bernd and James Herndon, eds., Mathematical Applications in Political Science 5 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1971).
  42. “Indicators of America’s Linkages with the World Environment,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 388 (March 1970), 82-96.
  43. Communication on defense spending and foreign policy behavior, Journal of Conflict Resolution 14:2 (June 1970), 287-90.
  44. “Making Defense Defensible,” Virginia Quarterly Review 46:4 (Autumn 1970), 287-90.
  45. “Interdependence et Potentiels de Cooperation Europeene,” Cahiers Economiques de Bruxelles 47:3 (Autumn 1970), 311-19. In English as “Interdependence and Capabilities for European Cooperation,” Journal of Common Market Studies 9:2 (December 1970), 143-50.
  46. “Licensing: For Cars and Babies,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 26:11 (November 1970), 15-19.
  47. “An Empirical Typology of International Military Alliances,” Midwest Journal of Political Science 15:2 (May 1971), 262-89.
  48. “Transactions, Community, and International Political Integration,” Journal of Common Market Studies 9:3 (March 1971), 224-45.
  49. “Collective Goods and International Organization” (with John D. Sullivan), International Organization 25:4 (Autumn 1971), 845-65.
  50. A Countercombatant Deterrent:  Feasibility, Morality and Arms Control,” in Sam Sarkesian, ed., The Military-Industrial Complex: A Reassessment (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1972).
  51. Foreword” to Charles L. Taylor and Michael C. Hudson, World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, 2nd ed. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972).
  52. “Some Computer Routines for Displaying Aggregate Data” (with J. Dow, C. L. Taylor, and J. Sullivan) International Studies Quarterly 16:3 (September 1972), 389-98.
  53. A Macroscopic View of International Politics,” in Vincent Davis, Maurice East, and James N. Rosenau, eds., The Analysis of International Politics (New York: Free Press, 1973).
  54. Testing Some Economic Interpretations of American Intervention: Korea, Indochina, and the Stock Market” (with Betty C. Hanson), in Steven Rosen, ed., Testing the Theory of the Military-Industrial Complex (Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1973).
  55. “Proportionality in War: The Hard Scales of Prudence and Justice,” Worldview 16:3 (March 1973), 42-44.
  56. The Revolt of the Masses: Public Opinion toward Military Expenditures,” in J. Lovell and P. Kronenberg, eds., The New Civil-Military Relations (New Brunswick, NJ: Trans-action Books, 1974). This is expanded from a chapter in book #9.
  57. “Assured Destruction of What? A Countercombatant Alternative to Nuclear MADness,” Public Policy 22: 2 (Spring 1974), 121-38. Reprinted in H. Ford and F. Winters, eds., Ethics and Nuclear Deterrence? (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1977) with a new postscript.
  58. “The Lion in Winter: A British Portent for Us All?” Worldview 17:3 (March 1974), 33-35.
  59. “Political Perspectives of U.S. Military and Business Elites,” Armed Forces and Society 1:1 (Fall 1974), 79-108.
  60. “From Peace Research to Peace Action: Some Pertinent Ethical Questions,” Bulletin of Peace Proposals 1974, 4, 366-71.
  61. “Bureaucracy and Polyarchy as Predictors of Performance: A Cross-National Examination” (with R. Joseph Monsen), Comparative Political Studies 8:1 (April 1975), 5-31.
  62. Elite Perspectives and Theories of World Politics,” in Geoffrey Goodwin, ed., Theories of World Politics (London: Croom, Helm, 1975).
  63. “Testing Some Theories of American Foreign Policy,” Bulletin of Peace Proposals 1975:1, 85-93.
  64. “The Americans’ Retreat from World Power,” Political Science Quarterly 90:1 (Spring 1975), 1-21.
  65. “Warriors and Scholars: Fellow Professionals in Hard Times,” Naval War College Review 28:2 (Fall 1975), 87-91.
  66. “Hur Fattiga Maste de Fattiga Vara?” (“How Poor Must the Poor Be?”), Rapport fran Sida 6:7 (November 1975), 3-5.
  67. Foreword: Evaluating the Evaluations,” in Francis Hoole and Dina Zinnes, eds., Quantitative International Relations, (New York: Praeger, 1976).
  68. “Some Proposals to Guide Research on Contemporary Imperialism” (with Raymond Duvall), Jerusalem Journal of International Relations 2:l (Fall 1976), 1-27. Reprinted in Spanish.
  69. “American Opinion on the Use of Military Force Abroad,” with Miroslav Nincic, Political Science Quarterly 90: 3 (Fall 1976), 411-31.
  70. “A Study of Foreign Policy Beliefs in American Elites,” International Relations (Tokyo, in Japanese), 1976:1, 124-32.
  71. “No First Use of Nuclear Weapons: To Stay the Fateful Lightning,” Worldview 19:11 (November 1976), 9-11.
  72. Apologia Pro Vita Sua,” in James Rosenau, ed., In Search of Global Patterns (New York: Free Press, 1977).
  73. Foreword: The Coin Sometimes Bears Two Faces,” to Clarence Abercrombie, “Choose You This Day”. . . The Military-Religious Dilemma of U.S. Army Chaplains (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1977).
  74. A Note on Techniques for Controlling Data Error,” in M. Bunge, J. Galtung, and M. Malitza, eds., Mathematical Approaches to International Relations (Bucharest: Romanian Academy of Social and Political Sciences, 1977).
  75. Data Priorities for Modelling Global Dependence,” in K. Deutsch, B. Fritsch, H. Jaquaribe, and A. Markovits, ed., Problems of World Modelling: Political and Social Implications (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1977).
  76. “Brilliant Analysis, Dismal Prognosis?” Social Science Quarterly 58:1 (June 1977), 156-59.
  77. “Conflict and Coercion in Dependent States” (with Steven Jackson, Duncan Snidal, and David Sylvan), Journal of Conflict Resolution 23:4 (December 1978), 627-57.
  78. “The Marginal Utility of Income Transfers to the Third World,” International Organization 32:4 (Fall 1978), 913-28.
  79. “Peace Science and the Continuing Threat of the Bomb,” Peace Science Society (International) Papers 28 (1978), 1-14.
  80. “The Effect of Similarity and Interest on Attitudes toward Foreign Countries” (with Miroslav Nincic), Public Opinion Quarterly 33:1 (Spring 1979), 68-78.
  81. “Disarmament, Human Rights, and Basic Human Needs,” Bulletin of Peace Proposals 1979:3, 275-80.
  82. The Global Politics of Arms Control,” in Chong-Wook Chung and Chong-Shik Chung, eds., The Major Powers and Korea (Seoul: Research Center for Peace and Unification, 1979).
  83. “An Assessment of Empirical Research on Dependencia” (with Steven Jackson, Duncan Snidal, and David Sylvan), Latin American Research Review 14:3 (Fall 1979), 7-28.
  84. “World Energy Demand and World Security,” Policy Sciences 9 (1979), 187-202.
  85. Foreword: COW Now,” in J. David Singer, ed., Explaining War (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1979).
  86. “Who Are the Terrorists?” Society 17:5 (1980), 16-17.
  87. Testing ‘Dependencia’: An Overview of the Yale Dependence Project” (with R. Duvall, S. Jackson, D. Snidal, and D. Sylvan), in G. Hirschier, R. Levy and W. Obrecht, eds., Sozialstruktur und Weltgesellschaft (Diessenhofen: Ruegger, 1980).
  88. A Formal Model of ‘Dependencia’: Structure and Measurement” (with R. Duvall, S. Jackson, D. Snidal, and D. Sylvan), 1981, in book #14.
  89. Consequences and Outcomes of International Conflict” (with Arthur Stein), in Ted Gurr, ed., Handbook of Political Conflict: Theory and Research (New York: Free Press, 1981).
  90. “U.S. Solar Energy Policy for Less Developed Countries,” Journal of Energy and Development 7:l (Autumn 1981), 39-59.
  91. “Health and Population Patterns as Indicators of Income Inequality” (with Steven Jackson, Duncan Snidal, and David Sylvan), Economic Development and Cultural Change 29:4 (July 1981), 759-79.
  92. “‘Don’t Tread on Me’: Public Opinion and Foreign Policy in the Eighties” (with Donald R. DeLuca), Political Science Quarterly 94:3 (Fall 1981), 381-99. Reprinted in Japanese.
  93. “Security and the Resources Scramble: Will 1984 Be Like 1914?” International Affairs 58:1 (Winter 1981-82), 42-58.
  94. Penetration and Economic Distortion of Peripheral Economies, 1970-75″ (with David Sylvan, Duncan Snidal, and Steven Jackson), in William R. Thompson, ed., Multiple Perspectives on the World System (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1983). Reprinted in Spanish.
  95. Causes of Peace,” in Carolyn Stephenson, ed., Alternative Methods for International Security (Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982).
  96. “Defense Expenditures and National Well-Being,” American Political Science Review 76:4 (December 1982), 767-77.
  97. Away from Nuclear Mythology,” in Dagobert Brito, Michael Intriligator, and Adele Wick, eds., Strategies for Managing Nuclear Proliferation: Economic and Political Issues (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983).
  98. “Evaluating World Politics” (with Harvey Starr), Journal of Peace Research 19:3 (1982), 275-77.
  99. The Contribution of Political Science,” in Proceedings of the Symposium, “The Role of the Academy in Addressing the Issues of Nuclear War” (Geneva, NY: Hobart and William Smith College, 1982).
  100. International Interactions and Processes: The Internal vs. External Debate Revisited,” in Ada W. Finifter, ed., Political Science: The State of the Discipline (Washington, DC: American Political Science Association, 1983).
  101. “‘Acceptable’ Deterrence and the Freeze,” in The Nuclear Freeze and Arms Control (Cambridge: Harvard Center for Science and International Affairs, 1983).
  102. “Prosperity and Peace,” International Studies Quarterly 27:4 (December 1983), 381-87. Reprinted in Spanish.
  103. “Theater Nuclear Forces: Public Opinion in Western Europe” (with Donald R. DeLuca), Political Science Quarterly 98:2 (Summer 1983), 179-96.
  104. The Doctrine of Deterrence,” in Philip J. Murnion, ed., Catholics and Nuclear Arms: A Commentary on the U.S. Bishops’ Pastoral Letter on War and Peace (New York: Crossroad, 1983).
  105. “The Effects of Drugs on Decision Making” (with Roy Lubit), Journal of Conflict Resolution 27:1 (March 1984), 85-102.
  106. “The Statement of the American Catholic Bishops: A Moral-Theological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence,” Bulletin of Peace Proposals 15:3 (Autumn 1984), 197-204.
  107. “Ethical Dilemmas of Nuclear Deterrence,” International Security 8:4 (Spring 1984), 36-54.
  108. “What Makes Deterrence Work? Cases from 1900 to 1980″ (with Paul Huth), World Politics 36:4 (July 1984), 496-526.
  109. “Images of World Futures” (with Marguerite Kramer), Journal of Peace Research 21:4 (1984), 317-36.
  110. “Dimensions of Resource Vulnerability: Some Elements of Rigor in Concept and Policy Analysis,” International Organization 36:3 (Summer 1984), 481-99.
  111. “The Mysterious Case of Vanishing Hegemony, or, Is Mark Twain Really Dead?” International Organization 38:2 (Spring 1985), 207-31.
  112. “Foreword,” to Paul M. Johnson and William R. Thompson, eds., Rhythms in Politics and Economics (New York: Praeger, 1985).
  113. “Deterrence in Theory and Practice,” Jerusalem Journal of International Relations 8:2-3 (June 1986), 215-34.
  114. “Star Wars as Morality’s Mirage” (in Japanese), Sekai (The World) July 1986, 35-44.
  115. “Sensible Deterrence as Arms Control,” in Joseph Richard Goldman, ed., American Security in a Changing World (Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1987).
  116. “Economic Downturn as a Cause of International Conflict,” in Frank Blackaby and Christian Schmidt, eds., Peace, Defence, and Economic Analysis (London: Macmillan, 1987).
  117. “In the Shadow of the Cloud: If There’s No Tomorrow, Why Save Today?” (with Miles Lackey), Political Science Quarterly 102:2 (Summer, 1987), 259-72.
  118. “Further beyond Deterrence,” Journal of Social Issues 40:3 (1987), 99-104.
  119. “The End of Nuclear Efficacy,” Arms Control Today 17:7 (September 1987), 37-38.
  120. “Deterrence Failure and Crisis Escalation” (with Paul Huth), International Studies Quarterly 32:1 (March 1988), 29-45.
  121. “American Hegemony: Gone or Merely Diminished, and How Does it Matter?” in Takashi Inoguchi and Daniel Okimoto, eds., The Political Economy of Japan: Vol. 2 The Changing International Context (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988).
  122. “Extended Deterrence with Nuclear Weapons: How Necessary, How Acceptable?” Review of Politics 50:2 (Spring 1988), 182-203.
  123. “Peace Research, Complex Causation, and the Causes of War,” in Peter Wallensteen, ed., Peace Research: Achievements and Challenges (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1988). A slightly different version appeared as “Peace Research and Peace Science: A Partial Stocktaking,” in Volker Bornschier, ed., World Systems Yearbook, I (Zurich, 1990).
  124. “Confessions from the Normative Closet,” in Joseph Kruzel and James Rosenau, eds., Journeys through World Politics: Autobiographical Reflections of Thirty-four Academic Travelers (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989).
  125. “The Real Decline in Nuclear Hegemony,” in Ernst-Otto Czempiel and James Rosenau, eds., Global Changes and Theoretical Challenges: Approaches to World Politics for the 1990s (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989).
  126. “Public Opinion and National Security Policy: Relationships and Impacts” (with Thomas W. Graham), in Manus Midlarsky, ed., Handbook of War Studies (London: Unwin Hyman, 1989).
  127. “Democracy, Public Opinion, and Nuclear Weapons,” in Philip Tetlock, Jo L. Husbands, Robert Jervis, Philip Stern, and Charles Tilly, eds., Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War, I (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).
  128. “Testing Deterrence Theory: Rigor Makes a Difference” (with Paul Huth), World Politics 42:4 (July 1990), 466-501.
  129. “Economic Decline, Electoral Pressure, and the Initiation of Inter-state Conflict,” in Charles Gochman and Alan Ned Sabrosky, eds., Prisoners of War? Nation-States in the Modern Era (Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1990).
  130. “The Politics of an Alternative Security System: Toward a More Democratic and Therefore More Peaceful World,” in Burns Weston, ed., Alternatives to Nuclear Deterrence (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1990). Also as “A More Democratic and Therefore More Peaceful World,” World Futures 29:4 (1990), 243-63.
  131. “The Political Economy of Israeli Military Action” (with Gad Barzilai), in Asher Arian and Michal Shamir, eds., The Elections in Israel–1988 (Boulder, Colo: Westview, 1990).
  132. “Intervention: Collective Approval and Collective Restraint,” The Responsive Community 1:1 (Winter 1990-91), 62-68.
  133. “Doves, Hawks, and U.S. Public Opinion,” Political Science Quarterly 104:4 (Winter 1990-91), 515-38.
  134. “The U.N. in a New World Order” (with James Sutterlin), Foreign Affairs 70:2 (Spring 1991), 69-83. A condensed but updated version appeared in Herbert Blumberg and Christopher French, eds., Lessons from the Gulf War: Social Science Findings (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1993).
  135. “An Acceptable Role for Nuclear Weapons?” in Charles Kegley and Kenneth Schwab, eds., After the Cold War: The Uncertain Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrence (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991).
  136. “Alliances, Contiguity, Wealth, and Political Stability: Is the Lack of Conflict among Democracies a Statistical Artifact?” (with Zeev Maoz), International Interactions 17:3 (1992), 245-67.
  137. “The Political Economy of Military Actions: Israel and the United States” (with Gad Barzilai), in Alex Mintz, ed., The Political Economy of Military Spending in the United States (London: Routledge, 1992).
  138. “The Dual Economy and Arab and Israeli Use of Force” (with Alex Mintz), in Steve Chan and Alex Mintz, eds., Defense, Welfare, and Growth (London: Routledge, 1992).
  139. “Peace between Participatory Polities: A Cross-Cultural Test of the ‘Democracies Rarely Fight Each Other’ Hypothesis” (with Carol and Melvin Ember), World Politics 44:4 (July 1992), 573-99.
  140. Esoteric Evidence on the “Democracies Don’t Fight Each Other” Puzzle, 1991 Edmund J. James Lecture (Urbana: University of Illinois, 1992).
  141. “Public Opinion and the Common Defense: Who Governs Military Spending?” (with Thomas Hartley), American Political Science Review 86:4 (December 1992), 905-15.
  142. “Do Democracies Fight Each Other? Evidence from the Peloponnesian War” (with William Antholis), Journal of Peace Research 29:4 (November 1992), 415-34.
  143. “Can a Democratic Peace Be Built?” International Interactions 18:,3 (1993), 277-82.
  144. “General Deterrence between Enduring Rivals: Testing Three Competing Models” (with Paul Huth), American Political Science Review 87:1 (March 1993), 61-73.
  145. “A Post-Thucydides, Post-Cold War World,” Mediterranean Quarterly 4:2 (Winter 1993), 46-56.
  146. “Deterrence,” and “Security Dilemma” in Joel Krieger, ed., The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (New York, Oxford University Press, 1993).
  147. “Between General and Immediate Deterrence,” in Aharon Klieman and Ariel Levite, eds., Deterrence in the Middle East: Where Theory and Practice Converge (Tel Aviv: Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, 1993).
  148. “Normative and Structural Causes of Democratic Peace, 1946-1986″ (with Zeev Maoz), American Political Science Review 87:3 (September 1993), 640-54.
  149. “Political Participation and Peace: Cross-Cultural Codes” (with Carol and Melvin Ember), Cross-Cultural Research 27:1/2 (February/May 1993), 97-145.
  150. “Diminished Expectations of Nuclear War and Increased Personal Savings: Evidence from Individual Survey Data” (with Joel Slemrod), American Economic Review 83:4 (September 1993), 1022-33. Longer version published as National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 4031, 1992.
  151. “Aggressiveness, Involvement, and Commitment in Foreign Policy Attitudes: Multidimensional Scaling” (with Samuel Shye), in Dan Caldwell and Timothy McKeown, eds., Diplomacy, Force and Leadership: Essays in Honor of Alexander L. George (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1993).
  152. “The Democratic Peace,” in Volker Bornschier and Peter Lengyel, eds., World Society Studies, III (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1994).
  153. “The Gulf War as Empowering the United Nations,” in John O’Loughlin et al., eds., War and Its Consequences: Lessons from the Persian Gulf Conflict (New York: Harper Collins, 1994).
  154. “The End of the Cold War: Attitude Change and the Politics of Defense Spending” (with Thomas Hartley and Shoon Murray),” PS: Political Science and Politics 14:1 (March 1994), 17-21.
  155. “Did Americans’ Expectations of Nuclear War Reduce Their Savings?” (with Jonathan Cowden, David Kinsella, and Shoon Murray), International Studies Quarterly 38:4 (December 1994), 587-603.
  156. “Peace and the Moral Imperative of Democracy,” in Drew Christiansen, ed., Peacemaking: Moral and Policy Challenges for a New World (Washington, DC: U.S.C.C., 1994).
  157. “From Containment to Democratic Peace,” in Fariborz L. Mokhtari, ed., Peace Making, Peace Keeping, and Coalition Warfare: The Future Role of the United Nations (Washington, DC: National Defense University, 1994).
  158. “Processes of Choice for War and Peace,” World Politics 47:2 (January 1995), 268-82.
  159. “The Future of Democratic Peace,” in Dan-Erik Andersson, ed., Peace and Democracy (Stockholm: Swedish Peace and Arbitration Society, 1995, in Swedish).
  160. “Foreword” to James S. Sutterlin, The United Nations and the Maintenance of : A Challenge to Be Met (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995); revised for second edition 2003.
  161. “The Democratic Peace: `And Yet It Moves,’” International Security 19:4 (Spring 1995), 164-77.
  162. “Why the Democratic Peace Proposition Lives” (with James Lee Ray), Review of International Studies 21:3 (July 1995), 519-23.
  163. “Reforming the United Nations: Problems and Possibilities” (with Paul Kennedy), Foreign Affairs 74:5 (September/October 1995), 56-71.
  164. “Democracy and Security in Northeast Asia,” in Chae-han Kim, ed., Ideologies and Policies of Korea in the 21st Century (Seoul: Hallym University Press, 1995, in Korean).
  165. “Vrede en de morele plicht tot democratie,” in Ben Schennick, ed., Denken over vrede na de Koude Oorlog (Nijmegen: Thomas More Academy, 1995).
  166. “Controlling the Soviet-American `Enduring Rivalry’: What Was the Role of Nuclear Weapons?” in Jern Gjelstad and Olav Njolstad, eds., Nuclear Rivalry and International Order (London: Sage, Ltd., 1996).
  167. “Breaking the Security Council Restructuring Logjam” (with Barry O’Neill and James Sutterlin), Global Governance 2:1 (January-April 1996), 65-80. Abstract
  168. “The United Nations and U.S. Interests,” in Thomas Ward and Frederick Swarts, eds., The 104th Congress and the United Nations: Understanding the Issues (New York: American Leadership Conference, 1996).
  169. “The Liberal Peace: Interdependence, Democracy, and International Conflict, 1950-1985″ (with John Oneal, Frances Oneal, and Zeev Maoz), Journal of Peace Research 33:1 (February 1996), 11-28. Also published in Japanese in Leviathan, 1996.
  170. “The Future as Arbiter of Theoretical Controversies: The Scientific Study of Politics and Predictions” (with James Lee Ray), British Journal of Political Science 26:4 (October 1996), 441-70.
  171. “Counterfactuals about War and Its Absence,” in Philip Tetlock and Aaron Belkin, eds., Counterfactual Thought Experiments in World Politics: Logical, Methodological, and Psychological Perspectives (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996).
  172. “The New Politics of Voting Alignments in the UN General Assembly” (with Soo Yeon Kim), International Organization 50:3 (Autumn 1996), 629-52. Abstract
  173. “Another Non-Event: The Second Japanese-American War,” in Jack Barkenbus, ed., Strengthening the Tradition of Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons (Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratories, 1996).
  174. “Ten Balances for Weighing UN Reform Proposals,” Political Science Quarterly 111:2 (Summer 1996), 259-69. Revised version in Japanese, in Readings on the System of International Politics and Economy, vol. 4 (Tokyo: Yuhikau, 1999).
  175. “Inequality and Democracy in the Anthropological Record” (with Carol and Melvin Ember), in Manus Midlarsky, ed., Inequality, Democracy, and Economic Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
  176. “A Community of Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organization,” in Charles Kegley and Eugene Wittkopf, The Global Agenda (New York: McGraw Hill, 5th edition, 1997). An adaptation of chapters by the same title in Davis Bobrow, Edward Halizak, and Ryszard Zieba, eds., National and International Security in the Late XX Century (Warsaw: Foundation of International Studies, in Polish, 1997); Young Seek Choue and Jae Shik Sohn, eds., Peace Strategies for Global Community and the Role of the UN in the 21st Century (Seoul: Kyung Hee University Institute of International Peace Studies, 1997); and Peter Wallensteen, ed., Preventing Violent Conflicts: Past Record and Future Challenges (Uppsala: Uppsala University, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, 1998).
  177. “The Classical Liberals Were Right: Democracy, Interdependence, and Conflict, 1950-85″ (with John Oneal), International Studies Quarterly 41:2 (June 1997), 267-93. Abstracts Data available in a zipped archive for SPSS and Stata
  178. “Global or Regional: What Can International Organizations Do?” in Toshio Tanaka and Takashi Inoguchi, eds., Globalism and Regionalism (Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1997).
  179. “A Structure for Peace: A Democratic, Interdependent, and Institutionalized Order,” in Takashi Inoguchi, John Keane, and Edward Newmann, eds., The Changing Nature of Democracy (Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1998).
  180. “NATO, Russia, and China in the Next Century” (with Allan Stam), in Illuminating the “Gray Zone”: A Conference on NATO Enlargement; Conference Proceedings (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1998).
  181. “Advance Democracy, Human Rights, and Religious Liberty,” in Glenn Stassen, ed., Just Peacemaking: Ten Practices for Abolishing War (Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 1998).
  182. “The Third Leg of the Kantian Tripod for Peace: International Organizations and Militarized Disputes, 1950-1985″ (with John Oneal and David Davis), International Organization 52:3 (summer 1998), 441-67.
  183. “Courting Disaster: NATO vs. Russia and China” (with Allan Stam), Political Science Quarterly 113:3 (fall 1998), 361-82.
  184. “Peace and Democracy,” in Young Seek Choue, ed., World Encylopedia of Peace (London: Pergamon, 1998).
  185. “A Neo-Kantian Perspective: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations in Building Security Communities,” in Emanuel Adler and Michael Barnett, eds., Security Communities in Comparative Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
  186. “Democratic Trading Partners: The Liberal Connection, 1962-1989″ (with Harry Bliss), Journal of Politics 60:4 (November 1998), 1126-47. An expansion of “Democratic Trading Partners: Ties of Interest and Community,” in Gustaaf Geeraerts and Patrick Stouthuysen, eds., Democratic Peace for Europe: Myth or Reality? (Brussels: Free University of Brussels Press, 1999).
  187. “The Convergence of American Elites’ Domestic Beliefs with Their Foreign Policy Beliefs” (with Shoon Murray and Jonathan Cowden), International Interactions 25:2 (1999), 153-80.
  188. “Is the Liberal Peace Just an Artifact of Cold War Interests? Assessing Recent Critiques” (with John Oneal), International Interactions 25:3 (1999), 1-29.
  189. “Assessing the Liberal Peace with Alternative Specifications: Trade Still Reduces Conflict” (with John Oneal), Journal of Peace Research 36:4 (July 1999), 423-42.
  190. “The Kantian Peace: The Pacific Benefits of Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations, 1885-1992″ (with John Oneal), World Politics 52:1 (October 1999), 1-37.
  191. “Why ‘An Identified Systemic Analysis of the Democracy-Peace Nexus’ Does Not Persuade” (with John Oneal), Defence and Peace Economics 11:2 (2000), 197-214.
  192. “A Basis for Peace in the Twenty-first Century,” in H. W. Brands, ed., The Use of Force after the Cold War (College Station, Texas A & M University Press, 2000).
  193. “From Democratic Peace to Kantian Peace: Democracy and Conflict in the International System” (with Harvey Starr), in Manus Midlarsky, ed., Handbook of War Studies (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2nd ed., 2000).
  194. “Clash of Civilizations, or Realism and Liberalism Déjà Vu? Some Evidence” (with John Oneal and Michaelene Cox), Journal of Peace Research 37:5 (September 2000), 583-608.
  195. “The United Nations and Three Great Forces for Peace,” in Renewing the United Nations and Building a Culture of Peace: Report of the IIFWP Assembly 2000 (New York: 2000).
  196. “How Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations Create a System for Peace,” in Charles Kegley and Eugene Wittkopf, eds., The Global Agenda (New York: McGraw Hill, 6th edition, 2001).
  197. “Clear and Clean: The Fixed Effects of the Liberal Peace” (with John Oneal), International Organization 55:2 (Spring 2001), 469-85.
  198. “Not All the Nations Furiously Rage Together,” in Robert Sullivan, ed., Catholic Traditions and Higher Learning (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001).
  199. “Science, Faith, and World Politics,” in Thomas Landy, ed., As Leaven for the World: Reflections on Faith, Vocation, and the Intellectual Life (Franklin, WI: Sheed and Ward, 2001).
  200. “Karl Wolfgang Deutsch: A Biographical Memoir” (with Richard Merritt and Robert A. Dahl), in National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, Vol. 80 (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001).
  201. “Deterrence” and “Security Dilemma,” in The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd ed., 2001).
  202. “Democratic Peace,” in Paul Barry Clarke and Joe Foweraker, eds., Encylopedia of Democratic Thought (London, Routledge, 2001).
  203. “Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution” (with Lilach Gilady), in Walter Carlesnaes, Thomas Risse, and Beth Simmons, eds., Handbook of International Relations (London: Sage, 2002).
  204. “Conflict Emergence and Escalation in Interactive International Dyads” (with David Kinsella), Journal of Politics 64:4 (November 2002): 1045-68.
  205. “Civil Wars Kill and Maim People—Long after the Shooting Stops” (with Hazem Ghobarah and Paul Huth), American Political Science Review 97:2 (May 2003): 189-202.
  206. “Violence and Disease: Trade as Suppressor to Conflict When Suppressors Matter,” in Edward Mansfield and Brian Pollins, eds., Economic Interdependence and International Conflict: New Perspectives on an Enduring Debate (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003).
  207. “Causes of Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations, 1886-1992″ (with John Oneal and Michael Berbaum), International Studies Quarterly 47:3 (September 2003): 371-93.
  208. “Finding Peace in a World of Hegemony and Terrorism” (with John Oneal), International Relations of Asia and the Pacific 3:2 (Fall 2003): 267-84.
  209. “Modelling Conflict While Studying Dynamics” (with John Oneal), in Gerald Schneider, Katherine Barbieri, and Nils Petter Gleditsch, eds., Globalization and Armed Conflict (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003).
  210. “The Postwar Public Health Effects of Civil Conflict” (with Hazem Ghobarah and Paul Huth), Social Science and Medicine 59:4 (August 2004): 869-84.
  211. “Monarchy, Democracy, or ‘Decent Consultative Hierarchy’?” in Francis Oakley and Bruce Russett, eds., Governance, Accountability, and the Future of the Catholic Church (New York and London: Continuum International, 2004).
  212. “Reintegrating the Subdisciplines of International and Comparative Politics,” in Suzanne Werner, David Davis, and Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, eds., Dissolving Boundaries (London: Blackwell, 2004).
  213. “A Neural Network Analysis of Militarized International Disputes, 1885-1992: Temporal Stability and Causal Complexity” (with Monica Lagazio), in Paul Diehl, ed., The Scourge of War: New Extensions on an Old Problem (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004).
  214. “The Comparative Political Economy of Human Misery and Well-Being” (with Hazem Ghobarah and Paul Huth), International Studies Quarterly 48:1 (March 2004): 73-94.
  215. “International Relations,” in Kimberly Kempf-Leonard, ed., Encylopedia of Social Measurement (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2004).
  216. “Islam, Authoritarianism, and Female Empowerment: What Are the Linkages?” (with Daniela Donno), World Politics 56:4 (July 2004).
  217. “Does the ‘War against Terrorism’ Prove the ‘Clash of Civilizations’ Right? Some Evidence” (with John Oneal and Michaeline Cox), in Peter Hermann and Arno Tausch, eds., Dar al Islam: The Mediterranean, the World System and the Wider Europe: The Chain of Peripheries and the New Wider Europe (Hauppauge, Nova Scotia: Nova Science, 2005). A condensed Russian version in Europa.
  218. “Measuring the Hidden Costs of Armed Conflict,” in Human Security Report 2005 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia, Centre for Human Security, 2005).
  219. “Seeking Peace in the Post-Cold War World of Hegemony and Terrorism” (with John Oneal, in French), Etudes Internationales 35:4 (December 2004), 641-65. English version appears in book #25 above.
  220. “Rule of Three, Let It Be: When More Is Better” (with John Oneal), Conflict Management and Peace Science 22:4 (Winter 2005), 293-310.
  221. “Security Council Expansion: Can’t and Shouldn’t,” in Ernesto Zedillo, ed., Reforming the United Nations for Peace and Security (New Haven, CT: Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, 2005).
  222. “Bushwhacking the Democratic Peace,” International Studies Perspectives 6:4 (November 2005), 395-408.
  223. “The Risk of Death in Battle” (with Bethany Lacina and Nils Petter Gleditsch), International Studies Quarterly 50:3 (September 2006), 673-80. Data at
  224. “Democratic Intergovernmental Organizations Promote Peace” (with Jon Pevehouse), International Organization 60:4 (Fall 2006), 969-1000. Available at
  225. “Commentary on Karl. W. Deutsch, 1961, ‘Social Mobilization and Political Development,’ American Political Science Review 55 (September), 634-47″ [#10 among all APSR most cited articles] American Political Science Review 100:4 (November 2006), 678-79.
  226. “Commentary on Zeev Maoz and Bruce Russett, 1993, ‘Normative and Structural Causes of Democratic Peace’ (with Zeev Maoz,), American Political Science Review 87 (September), 624-38″ [#19 among all APSR most cited articles], American Political Science Review 100:4 (November 2006), 685-86.
  227. “Thucydides, Ancient Greece and the Democratic Peace,” Journal of Military Ethics 5:4 (Winter 2006), 254-69.
  228. “In Memoriam: Holt Bradford Westerfield,” PS: Political Science & Politics 41:2 (April 2008), 413-14.
  229. “A Fourth Wave? The Role of External Actors in Democratization,” in Peter Nardulli, ed., International Perspectives on Contemporary Democracy (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008).
  230. “Advance Democracy, Human Rights, and Interdependence,” in Glenn Stassen, ed., Just Peacemaking: The New Paradigm for the Ethics of Peace and War, 3rd ed. (Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim, 2009).
  231. “Democracy, War, and Expansion through Historical Lenses,” European Journal of International Relations 15:1 (March 2009), 9-36.
  232. “Democratization and Peacebuilding” and “Democratic Peace,” in Nigel Young, ed., International Encyclopedia of Peace (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
  233. “Peace in the Twenty-First Century?” Current History (January, 2010), 451-56.
  234. “Liberalism,” in Tim Dunne, Milja Kurki and Steve Smith, eds., International Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). Updated versions in 3rd ed. (2013) and 4th ed., forthcoming 2015.).
  235. “Trade Does Promote Peace? The Perils of Simultaneous Estimation of the Reciprocal Effects of Trade and Conflict” (with Havard Hegre and John Oneal), Journal of Peace Research 46:6 (2010), 763-74. Replication files @ http//
  236. “Democracy or Capitalism? Not So Fast,” International Interactions 36:2(June 2010), 198-205.
  237. “Who Talks, and Who’s Listening? Networks of International Security Studies” (with Taylor Arnold), Security Dialogue 41:6 (December 2010). Replication files @
  238. “The Democratic Peace,” Human Security Report 2009/10 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
  239. “Preface: Predicting International Conflict,” in Tshilidzi Maarwala and Monica Lagazio, Militarized Conflict Modeling Using Computational Intelligence. (New York: Springer, 2011.)
  240. “The Effects of the International Security Environment on Military Expenditures: A Cross-Country Analysis, 1950-2000” (with William Nordhaus and John R. Oneal), International Organization 66:3 (Summer 2012), 491-515.
  241. “Structural Inference in Political Science Databases,”(with Minh-Tam Le, John Sweeney, and Steven Zucker), in Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics, (International Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2012), 138-40.
  242. “Does Capitalism Account for the Democratic Peace? The Evidence Still Says No” (with Allan Dafoe), in Nils Petter Gleditsch and Gerald Schneider eds, Assessing the Capitalist Peace (New York: Routledge, 2013).
  243. “The Democratic Peace: Weighing the Evidence and Cautious Inference” (with Allan Dafoe and John R. Oneal) International Studies Quarterly 57:1 (March 2013), 589-98.
  244. “Introduction to H-Diplo Roundtable Review of Jack S. Levy and William R. Thompson, The Arc of War: Origins, Escalation, and Transformation ” (H-Diplo Online, 2013).
  245. “The Waning of Warfare,” Current History, 100th Anniversary Issue, January 2014, pp. 30-32.
  246. “Democratic Peace,” “Deterrence,” and “Security Dilemma” in Joel Krieger, ed., The Oxford Companion to International Relations (New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2014).
  247. “Preface,” New Armies from Old: Combining Militaries after Civil War, Roy Licklider, ed. (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press,2014).
  248. “Would a Democratic Middle East Be More Peaceful? A Counterfactual Exercise” (with Erica De Bruin), in Michael Colaresi ,Steven Kautz,, and Arthur Melzer, eds., After the Arab Spring: Democratization and Regional Security, forthcoming 2014).
  249. “Screening out Risk: IGOs, Member State Selection, and Interstate Conflict” (with Daniela Donno and Shawna Metzger), International Studies Quarterly, forthcoming 2014).
  250. “Just What Is the Democratic Peace?” in  1914–The Collapse of a Peace Order: Is Democratic Peace an Alternative? Hakan Akblut, ed. (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, forthcoming 2015).