Bouda M, Huggett B, Prats K, Wason J, Wilson J, Brodersen C (2022) Hydraulic failure as a primary driver of xylem network evolution in early vascular plants. Science, 378(6620): 642-646 (doi:10.1126/science.add2910)

Paul E Verslues, Julia Bailey-Serres, Craig Brodersen, Thomas N Buckley, Lucio Conti, Alexander Christmann, José R Dinneny, Erwin Grill, Scott Hayes, Robert W Heckman, Po-Kai Hsu, Thomas E Juenger, Paloma Mas, Teun Munnik, Hilde Nelissen, Lawren Sack, Julian I Schroeder, Christa Testerink, Stephen D Tyerman, Taishi Umezawa, Philip A Wigge, Burning questions for a warming and changing world: 15 unknowns in plant abiotic stress, The Plant Cell, 2022;, koac263,

Procko C, Lee T, Borsuk A, Bargmann B, Dabi T, Nery J, Estelle M, Baird L, O’Connor C, Brodersen Cocker J, Chory J (2022) Leaf cell-specific and single-cell transcriptional profiling reveals a role for the palisade layer in UV light protection. The Plant Cell (In Press)

Killiny N, Brodersen C (2022) Using X-ray micro-computed tomography to three-dimensionally visualize the foregut of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis). Insects (In Press)

Fanton A, Furze M, Brodersen C (2022) Pathogen-induced hydraulic decline limits photosynthesis and starch storage in grapevines (Vitis sp.). Plant, Cell & Environment (In Press)

Pritzkow C, Brown M, Carins-Murphy M, Bourbia I, Mitchell P, Brodersen C, Choat B, Brodribb B (2022) Conduit position and connectivity affects the likelihood of xylem embolism during natural drought in evergreen woodland species. Annals of Botany (In Press)

Momayyezi M, Borsuk A, Brodersen C, Gilbert M, Théroux-Rancourt G, Kluepfel D, McElrone A (2022) Desiccation of the leaf mesophyll and its implications for CO2 diffusion and light processing. Plant, Cell & Environment (In Press)

Schreel J, Brodersen C, Schryver T, Dierick M, Rubinstein A, Dewettinck K, Boone M, Van Hoorebeke L, Steppe K (2022) Foliar water uptake does not contribute to embolism repair in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Annals of Botany (In Press)

Borsuk A, Roddy A, Théroux-Rancourt, Brodersen C (2022) Structural organization of the spongy mesophyll. New Phytologist (In Press)

Trueba S, Théroux-Rancourt G, Earles J, Buckley T, Love D, Johnson D, Brodersen C (2021) The 3D construction of leaves is coordinated with water use efficiency in conifers. New Phytologist (In Press)

Prats K, Brodersen C (2021) Desiccation and rehydration dynamics in the epiphytic resurrection fern Pleopeltis polypodioides. Plant Physiology, 187(3): 1501-1518

Furze M, Wainwright D, Huggett B, Knipfer T, McElrone A, Brodersen C (2021) Ecologically driven selection of nonstructural carbohydrate storage in oak trees. New Phytologist (2022) 233: 851-861

Brodribb T, Brodersen C, Carriqui M, Tonet V, Rodriguez Dominguez C, McAdam S (2021) Linking xylem network failure with leaf tissue death. New Phytologist (In Press)

Fanton A, Brodersen C (2021) Hydraulic consequences of enzymatic breakdown of grapevine pit membranes. Plant Physiology

Brodersen C (2021) By the narrowest of margins: Nano-scale modification of pit membranes and the fate of plants during drought. A Commentary on: “Intervessel pit membrane thickness best explains variation in embolism resistance amongst stems of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions”. Annals of Botany (In Press)

Wason J, Bouda M, Lee E, McElrone A, Phillips R, Shackel K, Matthews M, Brodersen C (2021) Xylem network connectivity and embolism spread in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Plant Physiology (In Press)

Théroux-Rancourt G, Roddy A, Earles M, Gilbert M, Zwieniecki M, Boyce C, Tholen D, McElrone A, Simonin K, Brodersen C (2021) Maximum CO2 diffusion inside leaves is limited by the scaling of cell size and genome size. Proceedings of the Royal Society B

Singhal S, Roddy A, DiVittorio C, Sanchez-Amaya A, Henriquez C, Brodersen C, Fehlberg S, Zapata F (2021) Diversification, disparification, and hybridization in the desert shrubs Encelia. New Phytologist (In Press)

McElrone A, Manuck C, Brodersen C, Patakas A, Pearsall K, Williams L (2021) Functional hydraulic sectoring in grapevines as evidenced by sap flow, dye infusion, leaf removal, and microCT, AoB PLANTS, plab003,

Albuquerque C, Scoffoni C, Brodersen C, Buckley T, Sack L, McElrone A (2020) Coordinated decline of leaf hydraulic and stomatal conductances under drought is not linked to leaf xylem embolism for different grapevine cultivars, Journal of Experimental Botany, Volume 71, Issue 22, Pages 7286–7300,

DiVittorio C, Singhal SRoddy A, Zapata F, Ackerly D, Baldwin B, Brodersen C, Búrquez A, Fine P, Flores M, Solis E, Morales-Villavicencio J, Morales-Arce D, Kyhos D (2020) Natural selection maintains species despite frequent hybridization in the desert shrub Encelia. 

Prats K and Brodersen C (2020) Seasonal coordination of leaf hydraulics and gas exchange in a wintergreen fern. AoB PLANTS, Volume 12, Issue 6, plaa048,

Johnson K, Brodersen C, Carins-Murphy M, Choat B, Brodribb T (2020) Xylem embolism spreads by single-conduit events in three dry forest angiosperm stems. Plant Physiology (In Press; DOI:

Théroux-Rancourt G, Jenkins M, Brodersen C, McElrone A, Forrestel E, Earles M. (2020) Digitally reconstructing leaves in 3D using X-ray microCT and machine learning. Applications in Plant Science (In Press; preprint: doi: 

Miller M, Roddy A, Brodersen C, McElrone A, Johnson D (2020) Anatomical responses to desiccation in emergent conifer seedlings. American Journal of Botany (In Press).

Schreel J, Leroux O, Goossens W, Brodersen C, Rubinstein A, Steppe K (2020) Identifying the pathways for foliar water uptake in beech (Fagus sylvatica): a major role for trichomes. The Plant Journal (In Press)

Cuneo I, Barrios-Masias F, Knipfer T, Uretsky J, Reyes C, Lenain P, Brodersen C, Walker A, McElrone A (2020) Differences in grapevine rootstock sensitivity and recovery from drought are linked to fine root cortical lacunae and root tip function. New Phytologist (In Press, doi:10.1111/nph.16542)

Bouda M, Windt C, McElrone J, Brodersen C (2019) In vivo pressure gradient heterogeneity increases flow contribution of small diameter vessels in grapevine. Nature Communications 10, 5645 doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13673-6

Roddy A, Théroux-Rancourt G, Abbé T, Benedetti J, Brodersen C, Castro M, Castro S, Gilbride A, Jensen B, Jiang G, Perkins J, Perkins S, Loureiro J, Syed Z, Thompson A, Kuebbing S, Simonin K (2019) The scaling of genome size and cell size limits the maximum rates of photosynthesis with implications for ecological strategies. International Journal of Plant Sciences,

North G, Brinton E, Browne M, Gillman M, Roddy A, Kho T, Want E, Fung V, Brodersen C (2019) Hydraulic conductance, resistance, and resilience: how leaves of a tropical epiphyte respond to drought. American Journal of Botany 106( 7): 943957;

Wason J, Brodersen C, Huggett B (2019) The functional implications of tracheary connections across growth rings in four northern hardwood trees. Annals of Botany Volume 124, Issue 2, 24 July 2019, Pages 297–306,

Brodersen C, Roddy A, Wason J, McElrone J (2019) Functional status of xylem through time. Annual Review of Plant Biology 70, 407-433

Ashton M, Brodersen C (2019) A restoration agenda for native forests. Contributed chapter to Better Planet resulting from the 2019 Yale Environmental Dialogue (In Press)

Borsuk A, Brodersen C (2019) The spatial distribution of chlorophyll in leaves. Plant Physiology

Prats K, Ashton M, Brodersen C (2019) Dry season influence on Quercus suber L. leaf traits in the Iberian Peninsula. American Journal of Botany 106(5): 656–666; doi:10.1002/ajb2.1280

Brodersen C, Germino M, Johnson D, Reinhardt K, Smith WK, Resler L, Bader M, Sala A, Kueppers L, Broll G, Cairns D, Holtmeier F, Wieser G (2019) Seedling survival at timberlines are critical to conifer mountain forest elevation and extent. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change (

Roddy A, Jiang G-F, Cao K-F, Simonin K, Brodersen C (2019) Hydraulic traits are more diverse in flowers than in leaves. New Phytologist 223: 193-203. doi:10.1111/nph.15749

Knipfer T, Reyes C, Earles J, Berry Z, Johnson D, Brodersen C, McElrone A (2019) Spatiogemporal coupling of vessel cavitation and discharge of stored xylem water in a tree sapling. Plant Physiology 179(4): 1658–1668;

Earles J, Buckley T, Brodersen C, Busch F, Cano J, Choat B, Evans J, Farquhar G, Richard Harwood R, Huynh M, John G, Miller M, Rockwell F, Sack L, Scoffoni C, Struik P, Wu A, Yin X, Barbour M (2019) Embracing 3D Complexity in Leaf Carbon–Water Exchange. Trends in Plant Science 1360-1385; DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2018.09.005

Scoffoni C, Albuquerque C, Cochard H, Buckley T, Fletcher L, Caringella M, Bartlett M, Brodersen C, Jansen S, McElrone A, Sack L (2018) The causes of leaf hydraulic vulnerability and its influence on stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiology

Alfaress S, Brodersen C, Ammar E, Rogers M, Killiny N (2018) Laser surgery reveals the biomechanical and chemical signaling functions of aphid siphunculi (cornicles). PLoS ONE 13(10): e0204984; DOI: journal.pone.0204984

Choat B, Brodribb T, Brodersen C, Duursma R, López R, Medlyn B (2018) Triggers of tree mortality under drought. Nature 558: 531-539; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0240-x

Earles J, Théroux-Rancourt G, Roddy A, Gilbert M, McElrone A, Brodersen C (2018) Beyond porosity: 3D leaf intercellular airspace traits that impact mesophyll conductance. Plant Physiology

Bouda M, Brodersen C, Saiers J (2018) Whole root system water conductance responds to both axial and radial traits and network topology over natural range of trait variation. Journal of Theoretical Biology Volume 456, 49-61;

Earles J, Knipfer T, Tixier A, Orozco J, Reyes C, Zwieniecki M, Brodersen C, McElrone A (2018) In-vivo quantification of plant starch reserves at micrometer resolution using X-ray microCT imaging and machine learning. New Phytologist 218: 1260-1269; DOI:10.1111/nph.15068

Knipfer T, Barrios-Masias F, Cuneo I, Bouda M, Albuquerque C, Brodersen C, Kluepfel D, McElrone A (2018) Variations in xylem embolism susceptibility under drought between intact saplings of three walnut species. Tree Physiology Volume 38(8),1180–1192;

Wason J, Anstreicher K, Stephansky N, Huggett B, Brodersen C (2018) Hydraulic safety margins and air-seeding thresholds in roots, trunks, branches, and petioles of four northern hardwood trees. New Phytologist 219: 77-88; DOI: 10.1111/nph.15135

Roddy A, Simonin K, McCulloh K, Brodersen C, Dawson T (2018) Water relations of Calycanthus flowers: hydraulic conductance, capacitance, and embolism resistance. Plant, Cell & Environment 2018: 1-13; DOI: 10.1111/pce.13205

Cuneo I, Knipfer T, Mandal P, Brodersen C, McElrone A (2018) Water uptake can occur through woody portions of roots and facilitates localized embolism repair in grapevine. New Phytologist 218(2): 506-516; DOI: 10.1111/nph.15032

Brodersen C, Knipfer T, McElrone A (2018) In vivovisualization of the final stages of xylem vessel refilling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) stems. New Phytologist 217: 117-126; DOI: 10.1111/nph.14811

Wason J, Huggett B, Brodersen C.(2017) “MicroCT imaging as a tool to study vessel endings in situ.” American Journal of Botany 104(9): 1424-1430; DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1700199

Knipfer T, Cuneo I, Earles J, Reyes C, Brodersen C, McElrone A. (2017) Storage compartments for capillary water rarely refill in intact Woody plant. Plant Physiology 175(4): 1649-1660 DOI: 10.1104/pp.17.01133

Théroux-Rancourt G, Earles J, Gilbert M, Zwieniecki M, Boyce C, McElrone A, Brodersen C (2017) The bias of a 2D view: Comparing 2D and 3D mesophyll surface area estimates using noninvasive imaging. New Phytologist 215(4): 1609-1622; DOI: 10.1111/nph.14687

Earles J, Théroux-Rancourt G, Gilbert M, McElrone A, Brodersen C (2017) Excess diffuse light absorption in the upper mesophyll limits CO2drawdown and depresses photosynthesis. Plant Physiology174: 1082-1096; DOI: 10.1104/pp.17.00223

Scoffoni C, Albuquerque C, Brodersen C, Townes S, John G, Bartlett M, Buckley T, McElrone A, Sack L (2017) Outside-xylem vulnerability, not xylem embolism, controls leaf hydraulic decline during dehydration. Plant Physiology 173: 1197-1210; DOI: 10.1104/pp.16.01643

Morris H, Brodersen C, Schwarze F, Jansen S (2016) The parenchyma of secondary xylem and its critical role in tree defense against fungal decay in relation to the CODIT model. Frontiers in Plant Science7: 1665; DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01665

Scoffoni C, Albuquerque C, Brodersen C, Townes S, John G, Cochard H, Buckley T, McElrone A, Sack L (2016) Leaf vein xylem conduit diameter influences susceptibility to embolism and hydraulic decline. New Phytologist 213(3): 1076-1092; DOI: 10.1111/nph.14256

Cueno I, Knipfer T, Brodersen C, McElrone A (2016) Mechanical failure of fine root cortical cells initiates plant hydraulic decline during drought. Plant Physiology 172(3): 1669-1678; DOI: 10.1104/pp.16.00923

Roddy A, Brodersen C, Dawson T (2016) Hydraulic conductance and the maintenance of water balance in flowers. Plant, Cell & Environment 39(10): 2123-2132; DOI: 10.1111/pce.1276139.

Knipfer T, Cuneo I, Brodersen C, McElrone A (2016) In-situ visualization of the dynamics in xylem embolism formation and removal in the absence of root pressure: A study on excised grapevine stems. Plant Physiology 171(2): 1024-36; DOI: 10.1104/pp.1600136

Sack L, Ball M, Brodersen C, Davis S, Des Marais D, Donovan L, Givnish T, Hacke U, Huxman T, Jansen S, et al. (2016) Plant hydraulics as a central hub integrating plant and ecosystem function: meeting report for “Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics” (Washington, DC, May 2015). Plant, Cell & Environment39(9): 2085-2094; DOI: 10.1111/pce.12732

Brodersen C & Roddy A (2016) New frontiers in the three-dimensional visualization of plant structure and function. Invited “On the Nature of Things” commentary for the American Journal of Botany 103(2): 184-188; DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1500532

Etxeberria E, Gonzalez P, Borges A, Brodersen C(2016) The use of laser light to enhance the uptake of foliar-applied substances into citrus (Citrus sinensis) leaves. Applications in Plant Science4(1): 1500106; DOI: 10.3732/aaps.1500106

Hochberg U, Albuquerque C, Rachmilevitch S, Cochard H, David-Schwartz R, Brodersen C, McElrone A, Windt C. (2016) Grapevine petioles are more sensitive to drought induced embolism than stems: evidence from in vivo MRI and microCT observations of hydraulic vulnerability segmentation. Plant, Cell & Environment39(9): 1886-1894; DOI: 10.1111/pce.12688

Brodersen C, Rico C, Guenni O, Pittermann J (2016) Embolism spread in the primary xylem of Polystichum munitum: implications for water transport during seasonal drought. Plant, Cell & Environment 39(2): 338-346; DOI: 10.1111/pce.12618

Exteberria E, Gonzalez P, Brodersen C (2015) Evidence for alternative pathways of CLas movement in citrus trees. Journal of the Florida State Horticultural Society 128: 2015

Brodersen C(2015) Finding support for theoretical tradeoffs in xylem structure and function. New Phytologist 209(1): 8-10; DOI:10.1111/nph.13763

Earles J, Sperling O, Silva L, McElrone A, Brodersen C, North M, Zwieniecki M (2015) Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown. Plant, Cell & Environment 39(2): 320-8; DOI: 10.1111/pce.12612

Knipfer T, Brodersen C, Zedan A, Kluepfel D, McElrone A (2015) Patterns of drought-induced embolism formation and spread in living walnut saplings visualized using x-ray microtomography. Tree Physiology 35(7): 744-755; DOI: 10.1093/treephys/tpv040

Torres-Ruiz J, Jansen S, Choat B, McElrone A, Cochard H, Brodribb T, Badel E, Burlett R, Bouche P, Brodersen C, Li S, Morris H, and Delzon S. (2015) Direct X-Ray Microtomography Observation Confirms the Induction of Embolism upon Xylem Cutting under Tension. Plant Physiology 167(1): 40-43; DOI: 10.1104/pp.114.249706

Choat B, Brodersen C, McElrone A (2015) Synchrotron x-ray microtomography of xylem embolism in Sequoia sempervirenssaplings during cycles of drought and recovery. New Phytologist 205(3): 1095-1105; DOI: 10.1111/nph.13110

Knipfer T, Eustis A, Brodersen C, Walker A, McElrone A (2015) Grapevine species from varied native habitats exhibit differences in embolism formation/repair associated with leaf gas exchange and root pressure. Plant, Cell & Environment38(8): 1503-1513; DOI: 10.1111/pce.12497

Brodersen C, Jansen S, Choat B, Rico C, & Pittermann J (2014) Cavitation resistance in seedless vascular plants: the structure and function of interconduit pit membranes. Plant Physiology165(2): 895-904; DOI: 10.1104/pp.113.226522

Brodersen C, Narciso C, Reed M, & Etxeberria E (2014) Phloem production in Huanglongbing-affected citrus trees. HortScience49(1): 59-64

Johnson D, Brodersen C, Reed M, Domec J-C, & Jackson R (2014) Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of tree species from a semi-arid habitat. Annals of Botany 113(4): 617-627; DOI: 10.1093/aob/mct294

Brodersen C(2013) Visualizing wood anatomy in three dimensions with high-resolution X-ray micro-tomography (µCT) — a review. IAWA Journal 34(4): 408-424; DOI: 10.1163/22941932-00000033

Pittermann J, Brodersen C, & Watkins J (2013) The physiological resilience of fern sporophytes and gametophytes: advances in water relations offer new insights into an old lineage. Frontiers In Plant Science 5: 285; DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00285

Lee E, Matthews M, McElrone A, Phillips R, Shackel K, & Brodersen C (2013) Analysis of HRCT-derived xylem network reveals reverse flow in some vessels. Journal of Theoretical Biology 333: 146-155; DOI: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2013.05.021

McElrone A, Choat B, Gambetta G, & Brodersen C(2013) Water uptake and transport in vascular plants. Nature Education Knowledge4(5): 6

Brodersen C & McElrone A (2013) Maintenance of xylem network transport capacity: a review of embolism repair in vascular plants. Frontiers In Plant Science 4: 108; DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00108

Brodersen C (2013) Visualizing water transport in roots: advanced imaging tools for an expanding field. Plant and Soil 366: 29-32; DOI: 10.1007/s11104-013-1657-5

McElrone A, Choat B, Parkinson D, MacDowell A, & Brodersen C (2013) Utilization of high resolution computed tomography to visualize the three dimensional structure and function of plant vasculature. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (74) e50162; DOI:10.3791/50162

Brodersen C, Lee E, Choat B, Shackel K, McElrone A, & Matthews A (2013) In vivo visualizations of drought-induced embolism spread in Vitis viniferaPlant Physiology161(4): 1820-1829; DOI: 10.1104/pp.112.212712

Brodersen C, Choat B, Chatelet D, Shackel K, Matthews M, & McElrone A. (2013) Xylem vessel relays contribute to radial connectivity in grapevine stems (Vitis vinifera and V. arizonica). American Journal of Botany 100(2): 314-321; DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1100606

Brodersen C, Roark L & Pittermann J. (2012) The physiological implications of primary xylem organization in two ferns. Plant, Cell & Environment 35(11): 1898-1911; DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02524.x

MacDowell A, Parkinson D, Haboub A, Schaible E, Nasiatka J, Yee C, Jameson J, Ajo-Franklin J, Brodersen C, & McElrone A. (2012) X-Ray micro-tomography at the Advanced Light Source. SPIE 8506, Developments in X-Ray Tomography VIII, 8506 (October 17, 2012); DOI: 10.117/12/290243

McElrone A, Brodersen C, Alsina M, Drayton W, Matthews M, Shackel K, Wada H, Zufferey V, & Choat B (2012) Centrifuge technique consistently overestimates vulnerability to water stress-induced cavitation in grapevines as confirmed with high-resolution computed tomography. New Phytologist 196(3): 661-665; DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04244.x

Brodersen C, Lee E, McElrone A, Choat B, Shackel K, Phillips R, & Matthews M. (2011) Automated analysis of three-dimensional xylem networks using high-resolution computed tomography. New Phytologist 191(4): 1168-1179; DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03754.x

Brodersen C, McElrone A, Choat B, Matthews, M, & Shackel K (2010) Dynamics of embolism repair in grapevine: in vivo visualizations using HRCT. Plant Physiology 154(3): 1088-1095; DOI: 10.1104/pp.110.162396

Gorton H, Brodersen C, Williams W, & Vogelmann T (2010) Measurement of the optical properties of leaves under diffuse light. Photochemistry and Photobiology 86(5): 1076-1083; DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2010.00761.x

Choat B, Drayton W, Brodersen C, Matthews M, Shackel K, Wada H, & McElrone A (2010) Measurement of vulnerability to water-stress induced cavitation in grapevine: a comparison of four techniques applied to a long-vesseled species. Plant, Cell & Environment 33(9): 1502-1512; DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2010.02160.x

Brodersen C & Vogelmann T (2010) Do changes in light direction affect absorption profiles in leaves? Functional Plant Biology 37: 403-412; DOI:10.1071/FP09262

Brodersen C, Lavergne S, & Molofsky J (2008) Genetic variation in photosynthetic characteristics among invasive and native populations of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea). Biological Invasions 10(8): 1317-1325; DOI: 10.1007/s10530-007-9206-x

Brodersen C, Vogelmann T, Williams W, & Gorton H (2008) A new paradigm in leaf-level photosynthesis: Direct and diffuse light are not equal. Plant, Cell & Environment 31(1): 159-164; DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2007.01751.x

Brodersen C & Vogelmann T (2007) Do epidermal lens cells facilitate the absorptance of diffuse light? American Journal of Botany 94(7): 1061-1066; DOI: 10.3732/ajb.94.7.1061

Brodersen C, Germino M, & Smith W (2006) Photosynthesis during an episodic drought in Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii across an Alpine Treeline. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 38(1): 38-41; DOI:[0034:PDAEDI]2.0.CO;2

Johnson D, Smith W, Vogelmann T, & Brodersen C (2005) Leaf architecture and direction of incident light influence mesophyll fluorescence profiles. American Journal of Botany 92(9): 1425-1431; DOI: 10.3732/ajb.92.9.1425

Smith W, Brodersen C, Hancock T, & Johnson D (2004) Integrated plant temperature measurement using heat-sensitive paint and colour image analysis. Functional Ecology 18(1): 148-153; DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2004.00814